World War 2 Background: Bitter rivalry knows no limits. History is evidence, bitterness between two nations extends with the stress put by one on the other and it does exist till the nations do and nations seldom die. The same happened in the case of Triple Alliance and Tripple Entente, the two rivals of world war 1.
After Germany’s capitulation, she was treated really with bad intentions and all human rights were kept reserved for the victorious camp. This humiliation and explicit danger to the sovereignty of Germany caused world war 2. So man witnessed the worst demonstration of ferocious munitions with complete devastation, turning Hiroshima and Nagasaki into ruins.
Millions of people lost their lives in this brutal show of the most brutal creature disguised as the symbol of peace. Many causes smoldered the happening. A few of them are listed below.
CAUSES OF THE WORLD WAR 2:
GERMANY’S DESIGN FOR REVENGE.
Before the defeat in world war I Germany had developed a well-reputed prestige but the defeat turned prestige into an insult. She was very badly treated and deprived of her most resources which made the daily life of Germans miserable.
Moreover, since appeasement could not bring any fruit, Hitler adopted the alternative for the goal, and the re-establishment of German prestige was denied by the opposite camp in the match of world war 2.
TREATY OF VERSAILLES:
The one-sided treaty was a true renaissance of the primitive ages, where victorious savage tribes used to loot the defeated cannabis. In the treaty, Germany was considered a sheep and was dragged to sign the humiliations labeled against her. She severely dictated the terms that profited the Tripple Entente. She was deprived of their resources. Her colonies were divided among the victorious alliance.
Her army was decreased to an insignificant point. She was torn apart by the establishment of the Polish Corridor. Stationed troops of the Tripple Alliance did not treat well the people of Germany. All such happenings paved the way leading toward world war 2.
EMPOWERMENT OF HITLER:
The difficulties put by the treaty of Versailles could not be copped by the Weimer Republic, Which was not helped for her consolidation by any country. Ultimately she lost power and the Nazi party established her government under the dynamic leader of Hitler in January 1933, claiming that he stood for peace. To establish his government he signed a treaty with Poland and denied his hand in the revolt of 1935 in Austria.
However, with the passage of time, his malevolence designs unfolded in the world. He occupied Rhineland in March 1936. In 1938 Austria was annexed. The students in Czechoslovakia were encouraged by Germany in their demand for unification with Germany.
Since Britain had an agreement with Czechoslovakia, there were very possibilities of war. However, with the efforts of Chamberlain peace was brought with the dis membership of Czechoslovakia. However, Churchill said that the Munich agreement was a total unmitigated defeat for Great Britain.
NON-AGGRESSION PACT WITH RUSSIA:
Hitler hit a masterstroke when he signed a non-aggression pact with Russia after signing agreements with Denmark, Estonia, and Latvia. Germany was afraid of fighting on two sides or fronts and the treaty made a denial to this happening. Afterward, events were very rapidly changed.
In consequence, a newspaper war between Germany and Poland created a war atmosphere. Poland was guaranteed Great Britain and France her help. Poland was given a very short period to sign the 16 points of Ribbentrop, the then Foreign Minister of Germany while means of communication between the Polish ambassador in Berlin and Poland were cut off.
In this atmosphere, Hitler invaded Poland on 1st Sep 1939. While after the refusal of the demand to withdraw from Poland by Germany put by Great Britain, Chamberlain declared war against Germany. The same did France. Thus world war 2 broke out in Sep 1939.
Though China had fought on the side of the Triple Entente in world war 1, Japan was given the right to enjoy concession at China’s expense. However, japan’s lust was not over. Ignoring the League of Nations, she occupied Manchuria in 1931.
Japan had increased its naval force tremendously. Her lust made her declare war on China. Though an official declaration was not made, one after another cities were being fallen in hands of Japan. When world war 2 broke out, Japan was still indulged in war. However since she was an ally of Berlin, Rome, and Tokyo Axis, she entered the war in 1941.
ESTABLISHMENT OF DICTATORSHIP IN EUROPE:
As Hitler’s Nazi party gained power with the failure of the Weimer Republic and started the destruction of the peace, the same was the case with Mussolini and his fascist followers. Mussolini raised the slogan of the revival of the old glory of the old Roman Empire. Italy attacked Abyssinia and annexed it. Italian volunteers successfully helped General Franco in Spain.
Two dictators were able to sign the Anti-Comintern pact in 1937 to give place to Berlin Rome Tokyo Axis. In 1939 both countries signed a ten-year of Non-Aggression Pact. Both were to co-cooperate and help each other in economic and war affairs. Both were not able to sign a unilateral treaty with a third party. Dictators seldom care for peace and the same drag nations to world war 2.
CONFLICT OF IDEOLOGIES:
In the divided world one camp was bound in gratitude to the dictatorship who worshiped lust for power and increase of resources with the use of force while the second camp was struggling to secure democratic values. Although neither of them was free of lust, the former’s line of action was more ferocious and rapid, and the latter was bound to lay hurdles in the way of dictators.
Germany, Italy, and Japan were flourishing to establish democracy. Mussolini rightly said, “The struggle between the two worlds can permit no compromise, either we or they”. Both ideologies were totally different in their attitudes. The individual was given no right in the dictator camp, he had to be sacrificed for the sake of the state while in the democratic camp individual was the foundation stone for all state activities. His respect was not to be disturbed till his action did not interfere with other individuals or the state’s interest.
Moreover, democratic countries were called “Haves” and did not have any immediate aims for expansion. While another camp was land Hungary especially Japan was ready to fight against any country trying to interfere in her sphere of influence.
Similarly, Germany and Italy were also willing to get as much as possible either by hook or by crook. So they were “Have-nots”. And a fight between “Haves” and “Have-nots” was inevitable.
WEAKNESS OF DEMOCRATIC POWERS:
After world war I France and Great Britain began to drift away from each other. Great Britain thought it could get more from the economic recovery of Germany than the worry of reparations while France felt insecure about the increase in German population and decrease in the French population. She felt that the future war could be a war against Germany. She failed to sign future agreements with the USA and Great Britain and entered into alliances with Poland and Czechoslovakia etc. Which were just liabilities rather than assets, so she signed an agreement with Russia.
Moreover, the appeasement policy of the democratic countries added to the encouragement given to the dictators who considered these states too weak to fight. But at length Great Britain declared war on Germany to help Poland and the same did France.
MILITARISM AND REARMAMENT OF GERMANY:
One of the major causes of world war 2 was militarism. It was declared in the treaty of Versailles that all countries would disarm themselves. Germany was forcefully disarmed, and Great Britain decreased its military to a dangerous point but France refused to abide by the treaty.
The result was that Hitler scrapped all those terms of the treaty of Versailles, which would put limitations on Germany and started to strengthen his country. The German air force was soon rapidly increasing power and compelled democratic countries to strengthen themselves. And ultimately this race ended in a bloodshed clash of world war 2.
NO THIRD FORCE TO TRY TO RECONCILE BETWEEN THE TWO CAMPS:
League of Nations was practically dead after her failure on the questions of Manchuria and Abyssinia. Both big and small states had lost their confidence in the League of Nations. Each and every country was trying to gain her personal ends from the treaty. The essence of the treaty had died long before. And now there was no force to mediate between the divided world. Both camps were bitter enemies of each other and did not allow any other solution but that of world war 2.
Economic lust had partly caused world war 1 and did not stop afterward. Need for the raw material and markets for the good was the cry of every country and especially those countries needed much who were deprived of their possession after world war 1 like Germany and those who felt disgusted themselves like Italy and Japan who felt they were not given the dues they ought to have gained.
In such circumstances, Germany, Italy, and Japan were brought together to form Axis Powers. Italy occupied Abyssinia, Japan invaded Manchuria and Germany started her long campaign for the expansion of her territory and resources. This way of invasion brought forward the democratic countries to stop the Axis Powers.
DISSATISFACTION WITH NATIONAL MINISTRIES:
Although the democratic Alliance raised the slogan of self-determination but they did not practice it. Moreover in central Europe minorities were intermixed with other nations in such a way that a clear-cut demarcation line was difficult to draw. Some population was mingled and confined in the boundaries of other states where they were considered minorities. So they ever ready to protest against it and were backed by the people of their mother countries.
It was the reason that Germany under the dynamic leadership of Hitler raised the cry that Germany had every right to fight against those who were mercilessly persecuting Germans. So that Germany annexed Austria, Sudentenland, and finally Poland which led to world war 2.
One of the main reasons for world war 2 was the prevailing spirit of nationalism. The peace settlement of 1919-20 was a mere settlement for the victorious who drove their national interests out of it. Internationalism was crushed under feet.
At the time of world war 2 nationalism was worshipped in Italy, Japan, and Germany. These countries had sought an end within their territories. Their only mission was the expansion of their territories. People of the subdued countries and colonies also made alliances with other big power to help war come into being so that big powers could be weakened and could seek their independence.
MISINTERPRETATION OF BRITISH RELAXATION BY GERMANY:
Though France and Britain had fought under one flag but after the peace settlement of 1919-20 gulf of differences was very vastly widened. Both countries had different views on disarmament, the future of Germany, the League of Nations, the system of collective security, and reparation.
France gained tremendous importance in Europe after the diffuse of Germany while Britain wanted a balance of power in Europe. It could be made possible by the strengthening of Germany which was not acceptable to France. This policy led Germany to annex Austria.
The same was the case with the Munich pact and occupation of Czechoslovakia but when Hitler did not put end to his appetite and invaded even Poland, it was a limit to Britain who declared war on Germany which brought other countries into conflict as well and thus world war 2 started.
These were the cause of world war 2. Which brought misery to thousands of families and took millions of people as its fuel. A civilized man is still not able to behave in a civilized way. Though some civilization could be seen in individuals, when it comes to groups, it is a bare primitive behavior and naked civilization.
What started World war 2 and why?
When Hitler invaded Poland in Sep 1939. Then the Allies decided ( Great Britain and France ) decided to declare war on Germany. This is the beginning of World war 2. World War 2 lasted for six years and came to an end in 1945 with the creation of the United Nations.
Why was World war 2 ended?
World War 2 came to an end when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After this Japan surrendered on Sep 2
1945 and World war 2 stopped.
What are the 3 causes of World war 2?
There are many causes behind the outbreak of world war 2. But the most important is the harsh impact of the Treaty of Versailles, the rise of militarism in Japan and Germany, and the failure of the League of Nations.